A state; as the people of the state of New York. A nation in its collective and politi­ cal capacity. Nesbitt v. Lushington, 4 Term R. 783; U. S. v. Quincy, 6 Pet. 467, 8 L.Ed. 458; U. S. v. Trumbull, D.C.Cal., 48 F. 99. The aggregate or mass of the individuals who constitute the state. Solon v. State, 54 Tex.Cr.R. 261, 114 S.W. 349; Loi Hoa v. Nagle, C.C.A.Cal., 13 F.2d 80, 81. – Black’s Law Dictionary 4th Edition | PAGE 1292


ARTIFICIAL PERSONS – Persons created and devised by human laws for the purposes of society and government, as distinguished from natural persons. Corporations are examples of artificial persons. 1 Bl.Comm. 123. Chapman v. Brewer, 43 Neb. 890, 62 N.W. 320, 47 Am.St.Rep. 779. Black’s Law Dictionary 4th Edition | PAGE 145


FRAUD – An intentional perversion of t th for the purpose of inducing another in reliance upon it to part with some valuable thing belonging to him or to surrender a legal right; a false repre­ sentation of a matter of fact, whether by words or by conduct, by false or misleading allegations, or by concealment of that which should have been disclosed, which deceives and is intended to de­ ceive another so that he shall act upon it to his legal injury. Brainerd Dispatch Newspaper Co. v. Crow Wing County, 196 Minn. 194, 264 N.W. 779, 780. Black’s Law Dictionary 4th edition | PAGE 788


FOY(foy or fwah). [Law French] Faith; allegiance. – Black’s Law Dictionary 9th Edition | PAGE 728


Aboriginal Title – “Land ownership, or a claim of land ownership, by an indigenous people in a place that has been colonized. – Also termed native title.” – Black’s Law Dictionary 9th Edition | PAGE 1622


FEE-SIMPLE In English Law A freehold estate of inheritance, absolute and unqualified. It stands at the head of estates as the highest in dignity and the most ample in extent ; since every other kind of estate is derivable thereout, and mergeable therein. It may be enjoyed not only in land, but also in advowsons, C’ommons, estovers, and other hereditaments, as well as in personalty, as an annuity or dignity, and also in an upper chamber, though the lower buildings and soil belong to another. Wharton ; Co. Litt. 1 b ; 2 Bla. Comm. 106. In American Law An absolute or fee-simple estate is one in which the owner is entitled to the entire property, with unconditional power of disposition during his life, and descending to his heirs and legal representatives upon his death intestate. Code Ga. 1882, § 2246 (Civ. Code 1910, § 3657). And see Friedman v. Steiner, 107 Ill. 131 ; Woodberry v. … Read More